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Guardiance & Travelling

The Performance of Umrah

1. When you reached the prescribed Station of ihram (al-miqat), make ghusl (a shower or fall washing of the whole body), and then put on the tow-piece garment of ihram (izar and ride), which preferably should be of white cloth. This applies to men only. A women also makes ghusl but she does not use makeup, and she may wear any clothes she has available as long as they do not display her adornments. She should be completely covered except of her face and hands. Then make your intention to perform Umrah by saying: “Labbayka Umra” or: “Labbayka Allahumma Umra”, as follows:

Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayka La Shareeka Laka Labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-n’imata Laka Wal-mulk La Shareeka Lak”

(Here I am at your service. O Lord, here I am. Here I am. No partner do you have. Here I am, Truly, the praise and the favour is yours, and the dominion. No partner do you have.)

Men should utter this aloud while women should say it silently. Repeat this talbiyyah frequently, and engage in the praise of Allah, in supplications for forgiveness, and in the enjoining of what is good and forbidding what is evil.

During the state of ihram for Hajj or Umrah, the following are obligatory:

  1. To faithfully observe all that Allah has made obligatory, such as the daily prayers at their proper times.
  2. To avoid what Allah has prohibited, such as wrong-doing, quarrelling and committing sins.
  3. To guard against injuring the Muslims by deed or by word.
  4. To abstain from what is prohibited during ihram, namely:
    1. Do not cut your nails or pull out hair. There is no blame on you if these break or come off by themselves without your intending it.
    2. Do not use scent, whether on the clothes or on the body, or in food or drink. There is no harm if the effect of scent applied before putting on ihram remains.
    3. Do no kill, frighten or assist in hunting any land game as long as you are in ihram.
    4. Within the precincts of Al-Haram, no one, in the state of ihram or not, is allowed to cut trees, pluck vegetables or collect a lost property except for the sake of identifying it for its owner. For the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said so.
    5. Do not propose to a woman or contract marriage either for yourself or on behalf of others. Sexual intercourse is prohibited too, so is touching the apposite sex with desire. All these actions are prohibited during the period of ihram.

All these prohibitions apply equally to men and women alike.

In Particular:

  • A man may not put any covering on his head. However, the shade of an umbrella or the roof of a car is permissible. There is no harm in carrying something on the head.
  • A man may not wear a shirt or anything else which is sewn, such as a burnoose, turban, trousers, khuff (short, thin boot), on the whole or a part of his body.
  • It is forbidden for a woman to wear gloves on her hands or to cover her face with a face-veil (niqab) during the state of ihram. However, if male strangers are around her, she should conceal her face with her head-covering or something similar. These rules apply until she comes out of ihram.
  • If a person wears a sewn garment or covers his head (for men), uses perfume, pulls out some hairs, or cuts his nails through forgetfulness or due to ignorance, there is no fidyah (Expiation) for him. He should stop doing such things as soon as he remembers or is reminded of them.
  • It is permissible to wear sandals, a ring, a pair of glasses, a hearing aid, a wrist watch, and a belt or a girdle which protects one’s money or documents.
  • It is permissible to change one’s clothes and to wash them, as well as to wash one’s hair and body, and it does not matter if some hair inadvertently falls out during washing.

2. Upon reaching the Holy Mosque in Makkah, it is desirable that the pilgrim enter the Holy Mosque from Bab Al-Salam if possible. The pilgrim should advance his/her right foot first and say:

“A’udhu billahi-l-’adheem wa wajhihi-l-kareem wa sultaanihi-l-qadeem min-ashaytaani-rrajeem; bismillah, Allahumma Salli ‘ala Mohammed wa ‘aalihi wa sallim; Allahumma ighfir lee dhnubi w-aftah lee abwaaba rahmatik.”

(I seek refugee in Allah the Almighty and His noble countenance and His eternal power from Satan. In the name of Allah. O Allah, bestow Your peace and blessings on Mohammed and his family. O Allah, pardon my sins and open the gates of Your mercy for me.)

The above supplication is not specific to entering the Holy Mosque in Makkah but can be said on entering all mosques. Upon entering the Holy Mosque, the pilgrim looks at the Holy Ka’bah and rising his arms in supplication, he/she says:

“Allahumma zid hadha-l-bayta tashreefan wa ta’dheeman wa takreeman wa mahaabatan, wa zid min sharafihi wa karamihi mimman hajahu aw i’tamarahu tashreefan wa ta’dheeman wa takreeman wa birran”

(God Almighty, bestow more honour, glory, respect and awe on this House; bestow more honour and respect on whoever comes to it in Hajj or Umrah out of honour, respect, glory and devotion.”

Next, The pilgrim makes seven circuits around the Ka’bah, beginning at the Black Stone with takbir (utterances of “Allahu Akbar”), keeping the Holy Ka’bah to his/her left, and ending each at the same place . While making your tawaf you may praise Allah and make supplications to Him in any words you please. It is preferable to end each with the words.

“Rabbana, atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina adhaban-nar.”

(Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the fire.)

The first three laps around the Ka’bah should be performed in hurried steps if it does not result in any harm or inconvenience to one’s self or to others. For the remaining four laps around the Ka’bah the pilgrim should walk.

After completing the tawaf, the pilgrim should pray two rak’as behind the Station of Ibraheem (Maqam Ibraheem) if it is possible, even though you may be a little far from it. Otherwise at any other place within the Sacred Mosque.

3. You then go to as-Safa and climb on it. Facing the K’abah, praise Allah, raising your hands, say takbir (“Allahu Akbar”) three times. Then make supplication to Allah, repeating your supplication three times as this is the Sunnah. Then say:

“La ilaha illal-lah, wahdahu la shareeka lah.”

“Lahul-mulk wa lahul-hamd, wa huwa ‘ala kulli shayin qadeer.”

“La ilaha illal-lah, wahdahu, anjaza wadehu wa nasara abdahu wa hazama al ahzab wahdahu.”

(There is no deity except Allah, The One without a partner. He is the dominion and his is the praise, and He is powerful over everything. There is no deity except Allah, completed His promise, supported His slave and defeated the parties Alone.)

It is preferable to utter this supplication three times, but there is no harm in saying it less than three times. You then descend from as-Safa and do the sa’ye of the Umra seven times. Increase your pace between the green posts, but walk at a normal pace before and after them. When you climb on the Marwah, praise Allah and do as you did at as-Safa, repeating your supplications, if you can conveniently do so, three times.

There are no required formulas or supplications for tawaf and sa’ye. It is up to the worshipper to praise Allah or supplicate Him in his own words, or he may recite portions of the Qur’an, with due regard to the supplications which the Prophet (peace be on him) recited during the performance of these rites.

4. After sa’ye, end your Umra by shaving or shortening your hair. After this, the prohibitions pertaining to the state of ihram are lifted and you may now resume your normal life.

Brothers and sisters that follow the Jafaria mazhab need to perform a further tawaf, known as tawafun nissa.

The Performance of Hajj

There are three ways of performing the Hajj:

  1. Hajj al-Tamatt’u (interrupted)
  2. Hajj al-Qiran (combined)
  3. Hajj al-Ifrad (single)
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Hajj al-Tamett’u

This means entering into Ihram for the Umrah during the months of Hajj, i.e., the months of Shawwal, Dhul-Q’idah and the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah; to take off Ihram after performing the Umrah, and then to take Ihram again for the Hajj from Makkah on the 8th day of Dhul-Hijjah during the same year in which the Umrah was performed.

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Hajj al-Qiran

This denotes entering into Ihram for both the Umrah and the Hajj at the same time, not taking off the ihram until the day of Sacrifice (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah). Alternatively, one may first enter into Ihram for the Umrah, and before beginning one’s tawaf may make the intention of Ihram for the Hajj as well.

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Hajj al-Ifrad

This signifies donning Ihram for the Hajj either from the prescribed Station of Ihram (al-miqat), from Makkah if one resides there, or from a place in between al-miqat and Makkah.

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1. If you are performing Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-Qiran you enter into Ihram at the Station of Ihram (al-miqat) through which you pass on your way to Makkah. If you do not pass through any Station of Ihram on your way to Makkah, you enter into Ihram from your residence. If you are performing Hajj al-Tamatt’u, you enter into Ihram for Hajj from your residence in Makkah on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah. Perform ghusl (shower or washing of the entire body), and then put on the two-piece garment of Ihram. This applies to men only. Women likewise perform ghusl but are not to use perfume. They may wear any clothes they have as long as they do not display their adornments. They should be completely covered except of her face and hands. After putting on Ihram make your niyyah (intention) by saying: “Labbayka Hajjan” then recite talbiyyah:

“Labbayka Allahumma Labbayk. Labbayka La Shareeka Laka Labbayk. Innal-hamda wan-n’imata Laka Wal-mulk La Shareeka Lak”

(Here I am at your service. O Lord, here I am. Here I am. No partner do you have. Here I am. Truly, the praise and the favour is yours, and the dominion. No partner do you have.)

2. You then go to Mina, where you pray the Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha and Fajr prayers at their proper times, shortening prayers of four rak’as to two rak’as. Do not combine these prayers.

3. When the sun has risen on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah, proceed toward Arafat in a dignified manner and without harming your fellow pilgrims. At Arafat, pray the Dhuhr and ‘Asr prayers, shortened and combined during the time of Dhuhr with one adhan and two iqamahs.

4. When the sun has set, proceed toward Muzdalifah in a peaceful and dignified manner, reciting talbiyyah. Do not harm or cause any discomfort to your fellow pilgrims. When you arrive at Muzdalifah, Pray the Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers combined, shortening ‘Isha to two rak’as. Stay at Muzdalifah until you have prayed the Fajr prayer. Then wait until the brightness of the morning is wide spread, supplicate facing qiblah with upraised hands, following the practice of the Prophet (Peace be on him).

  • For women or weak individuals, it is permissible to proceed to Mina at any time after midnight.

In Muzdalifah, pick up only seven pebbles to throw at the Stone Pillar of ‘Aqabah. Other pebbles can be picked up at Mina. There is no harm even if the seven pebbles to be thrown at the Stone Pillars of ‘Aqabah are also picked up at Mina.

5. When you arrive at Mina, do the following:

  1. At the Stone Pillar of ‘Aqabah (This is the pillar nearest to Makkah) throw the seven pebbles one after the other, saying “Allahu Akbar” at each throw.
  2. if you are required to sacrifice, slaughter your sacrificial animal. You are to eat some of its meat and distribute the major part of it to the needy.
  3. Shave your head or cut some hair from it. Shaving is preferable for men, while for women the length of hair to be cut is that of a fingertip.
    • The above-mentioned order of doing things is preferred, however, if they are done in some other order, there is no harm in it.
    • After you have thrown the pebbles and shaved or cut some of your hair, the prohibitions of Ihram are lifted, excepting the prohibition of sexual intercourse with your spouse. This is the first tahallul. You are now to wear your usual clothes.

6. Then you go to Makkah and perform the tawaf al-ifadah (the tawaf which is an essential part of the Hajj). If you are doing Hajj al-Tamatt’u, you also perform sa’ye. If you are performing Hajj al-Ifrad or Hajj al-qiran and you did not perform sa’ye with tawaf al-qudum (the tawaf of arrival), you must do sa’ye now. After this, the prohibition of marital relations is also lifted and you return to a completely normal life.

  • It is permissible to delay the tawaf al-ifadah until the days spent at Mina are over, going to Makkah for this tawaf after all three Pillars have been stoned.

7. After performing your tawaf al-ifadah on the Day of Sacrifice, return to Mina and spend there the nights preceding the 11th,12th and13th days of Dhul-Hijjah (the three days following the Day of Sacrifice which are known as Ayyamu-Tashreeq). It is however, permissible to spend only two nights in Mina instead of three.

8. At any time in the afternoon of each of the two or three days of your stay in Mina, stone each of the three Pillars, starting with the first Pillar (the one which is farthest from Makkah), followed by the middle Pillar and lastly the Pillar of ‘Aqabah . Throw seven pebbles, one by one, at each of these Pillars, saying “Allahu Akbar” at each throw.

  • If you stay in Mina for only two days, you must leave Mina before the sunset on the second day. If the sun should set before your are able to depart, remain in Mina for the third night and throw pebbles again the next day.
  • It is permissible for the sick and the weak to appoint a proxy to throw their pebbles, followed by the pebbles of the person he represents while at the same pillar.

9. If you decide to return to your country after completing the rites of Hajj, you perform the farewell tawaf (tawaf al-wida) before leaving Makkah. No one is excused from this except the women who are menstruating or on the period of discharge following childbirth.

Visitation of the Prophet’s Mosque

1. Going to Madinah at any time with the intention of visiting the Prophet’ Mosque is a Sunnah, as is performing salah in it. According to the Hadith of the Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be on him), a salah performed in the Prophet’s Mosque is better than a thousand salats in any other place except the Sacred Mosque (Masjid al-Haram) in Makkah.

2. There is no Ihram nor talbiyyah for the visit to the Prophet’s Mosque, and it should be emphasized that there is no connection whatsoever between this visit and the Hajj.

3. When you enter the Prophet’s Mosque, enter with your right foot first, saying the name of Allah the Most High, and evoking blessings on His Prophet (may his peace and blessings be on him), and ask Allah to open the gates of his mercy for you. The recommended words for entering any mosque, including the Prophet’s Mosque, are:

“A’udu billahil-adheem wa wajhi hil-kareem wa sultanihil-qadeem mina-shaytani-rajeem. Allah-humma, iftah li abwaba rahmattek.”

(I seek refuge in Allah the Al-mighty, and in His noble countenance and in His eternal power, from Satan the Rejected. O Allah, open to me the doors of Your mercy.)

4. Perform two rak’as of tahiyyat al-masjid (the salat of “greeting of the mosque”) after entering the Mosque, preferably in the Rawdah or otherwise anywhere else in the Mosque.

5. Then go to the grave of the Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be on him), and standing in front of it and facing it, say in a respectful and hushed voice:

“Assalmu ‘alaika, ayyuhan-nabiyya wa rahmatul-lahi wa barakatuhu”

(Peace be on him, O Prophet, and the mercy and blessings of Allah).

There is no harm if you add:

“Allahumma, atihil-waseelata wal-fadeelata wab-’athul-maqamal-mahmoudal-ladhee wa-adtahu. Allahumma, ajzih ‘an ummatihi afdala-jaza’.”

(O Lord, give him the right (of intercession) and the favour, and raise him to the praiseworthy station which you promised to him. Allah, reward him on behalf of his ummah (people) with the best of rewards.)

Then move a little to the right to stand before the grave of Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him). Greet him and supplicate Allah to bestow His mercy and forgiveness on him. Again move a little to the right to stand before the grave of Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), and greet him and make supplication for him.

6. It is Sunnah to have tahara, and visit the Mosque of Quba and offer salat in it, as the Prophet (peace be in him) prayed there and encouraged others to do the same.

7. It is Sunnah to visit the graves of al-Baqe’e cemetery, and the grave of Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) and the martyrs of Uhod, and the grave of Hamzah (may Allah be pleased with them); to greet them and to pray for the mercy of Allah upon them. The Prophet (peace be upon him) used to visit all these graves and pray for the souls of those who were buried there. He taught his companions when visiting graves to say:

“Assalamu ‘alaikum, ahlal-diyar minal-mu’mineen wal-muslimeen, wa inna insha-Allah bikum lahi-qoon. Nasalal-laha lana wa lakumul-’afiyah.”

(Reported by Muslim)

(Peace be on him, O dwellers of this place from among the Believers and the Muslims, and we will Insha-Allah join you. We ask Allah for security (from the Fire of Hell) for ourselves and for you)

According to the Shari’ah besides the mosques and other places mentioned above, there are no other mosques or places in Madinah which are to be visited. Therefore, do not burden yourself by visiting places for which there is no reward or for which, in fact, there might be some blame for doing so. And Allah is the source of guidance.

Errors Often Committed by Pilgrims

First: Errors Related to Ihram

Some pilgrims pass the designated Station of Ihram on their route without being in Ihram or entering into Ihram there, proceeding until they reach Jeddah or some other places within the precincts of the stations, at which they enter into Ihram, This is against the command of Allah’s Messenger (peace be on him), which stipulates that every pilgrim should enter into Ihram at the Station of Ihram which lies on his route.

If this happens to someone, he must either go back to the Station of Ihram lying on his route and there enter into Ihram, or he must make expiation by sacrificing a sheep in Makkah and feeding all its meat to the poor. This applies to all pilgrims regardless of whether one passes the Station of Ihram by air, by sea or by land.

  • If one did not pass through one of the five designated Stations of Ihram, he should enter into Ihram at a point which nearest to the Station of Ihram on his route.
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Second: Errors Related to tawaf

  1. Starting the tawaf at some point other than the site of the Black Stone, while it is obligatory to begin tawaf from the Black Stone.
  2. Doing one’s tawaf inside the Hijr of Isma’il is a part of the K’abah which would then be left out of tawaf. Such a tawaf is invalid.
  3. Doing ramal (i.e., taking quick short steps) during all seven circuits while ramal is to be done only during the first three of the tawaf of arrival (tawaf al-qudum).
  4. Struggling vehemently to kiss the Black Stone in this process and hitting or pushing people. Such acts, which are injurious to Muslims, are not permissible.
    • It should be noted that the tawaf remains perfectly valid without kissing the Black Stone. If one does not or cannot kiss the Black Stone, it is sufficient simply to point to it, saying “Allahu Akbar” when one comes parallel to it, although one may be at a distance from it.
  5. Wiping one’s hand over the Black Stone, seeking barakah (blessings) thereby is a bid’a (innovation) with no basis in the Shari’ah of Islam. The Sunnah is to touch it or kiss it only when it can be done easily.
  6. Touching the four corners of K’abah or its walls, and wiping one’s hand against them. The Prophet (peace be on him) did not touch any part of K’abah except the Black Stone and the Yamani Corner.
  7. Saying specific formulas of supplications reserved for each circuit. The Prophet (peace be on him) did not specify any supplications except “Allahu Akbar” when he reached the Black Stone and, at the end of each circuit between the Yamani Corner and the Black Stone, he said:

    “Rabbana, atina fid-dunya hasanatan wa fil-akhirati hasanatan wa qina adhaban-nar.”

    (Our Lord, give us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the punishment of the fire.)

  8. Raising one’s voice above the voices of others; whether in following or leading the tawaf as it causes confusion among the worshippers.
  9. Struggling to pray at the Station of Ibraheem. This is contrary to the Sunnah, besides being injurious to other worshippers. It is sufficient to pray the two rak’as of tawaf after completing one’s tawaf anywhere within the Sacred Mosque.
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Third: Errors Related to Sa’ye

  1. When climbing upon Safa and Marwah, some pilgrims face the K’abah and gesticulate toward it with their hand while saying “Allahu Akbar” as if they were saying takbir for salat. This gesticulating is an error because the Prophet (peace be on him) raised his palms only for supplication. Here you may glorify and magnify Allah the Most High, supplicating Him in any words you wish while facing the direction of the K’abah. It is preferable to recite the dhikr which the Prophet (peace be on him) recited at Safa and Marwah.
  2. Accelerating one’s pace throughout the entire distance between the two hills. The Sunnah is to Accelerate one’s pace only between the two green posts, while walking at normal pace the remainder of the way.
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Fourth: Errors Related to Arafat

  1. Some pilgrims camp outside the boundaries of Arafat and remain there until the sun has set; then they depart for Muzdalifah without standing at Arafat properly. This is a serious error which invalidates their Hajj since standing in Arafat is the essence of Hajj, and it is obligatory to be within its boundaries and not outside them, if it is not easy to do that, they may enter before sunset and remain their until sunset. It is quite acceptable to stand in Arafat during the night of sacrifice in particular.
  2. Departing from Arafat before the sun has set is not permissible, because the Messenger of Allah (peace be on him) stayed at Arafat until the sun had set completely. Struggling through crowds in order to climb mount Arafat is not permissible, because it causes much harm and injury to others. The entire Plain of Arafat is a place of standing, and neither climbing mount Arafat nor making salah there has been recommended.
  3. Making supplications facing Mount Arafat is incorrect because the Sunnah is to face qiblah while making supplication. Making heaps of earth or pebbles: during the day of Arafat, at particular places, by some people, has no bases in the Shari’ah of Allah.
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Fifth: Errors Related to Muzdalifah

Some pilgrims start collecting pebbles to throw at the Stone Pillars in Mina as soon as they arrive in Muzdalifah prior to praying the Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers. This is not correct. Nor is the practice that all pebbles must be collected at Muzdalifah. The correct position is that the pebbles can be collected anywhere within the boundaries of al-Haram.

It is known that the Prophet (peace be on him) did not ask that the pebbles for Jamaratul-Aqabah be picked for him from Muzdalifah. They were picked up for him, in the morning, after leaving Muzdalifah and on entering Mina. The rest of the pebbles were picked up, for him, from Mina, too. Some pilgrims wash the pebbles, but this is not recommended.

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Sixth: Errors Related to Throwing the Pebbles

  1. Some pilgrims are under the impression that when they are throwing pebbles at the Stone Pillars, they are actually throwing them at Shayateen (devils); hence they hurl them with rage and force. However, the throwing of the pebbles has been merely prescribed as a means of remembering Allah the Most High.
  2. Some people throw big stones, shoes or pieces of wood. This is an excess in matters of religion which the Prophet (peace be on him) prohibited, what is allowed is to throw pebbles the size of good beans.
  3. Crowding and fighting with others at the Pillars while throwing the pebbles is not permissible. What is prescribed is to be gentle and to throw the pebbles without hurting anyone as much as possible.
  4. Throwing all the pebbles at one time is an error. Scholars have said that this would be counted as only one throw. The Shari’ah prescribes throwing the pebbles one by one, saying “Allahu Akbar” to each separate throw.
  5. Appointing a proxy to throw the pebbles, simply due to fear of the crowds or of hardship, while one is capable of doing it himself. Only sick or weak individuals are permitted to have a proxy for this act.
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Seventh: Errors Related to the Farewell tawaf (tawaf al-Wida)

  1. On the day of the pilgrims departure, some of them go to Makkah to perform their farewell tawaf before throwing the pebbles at the Pillars, then they return to Mina to throw the pebbles, and depart from Mina for their respective countries. Thus their final rite becomes that of throwing the pebbles at the Pillars and not of the tawaf of K’abah. This is an error as the Prophet (peace be on him) said.

    “No one should depart without his last visit being to the House (K’abah)”. Accordingly, the farewell tawaf must take place after one has completed all rites of Hajj (and before starting his journey for home). After this tawaf one should not stay in Makkah except during the time it takes to prepare to depart.

  2. After finishing the farewell tawaf, some people walk backwards, facing the K’abah, as they exit from the sacred Mosque, under the impression that this is a veneration of the K’abah. This act is an innovation in the religion and is without any basis.
  3. After finishing the farewell tawaf, Some pilgrims halt at the door of the Sacred Mosque to make supplications. This is also an innovation with no basis in the Shari’ah of Islam.
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Eighth: Errors Related to the visit of the Prophet Mosque

  1. Touching and wiping one’s hands on the walls and iron grilles, tying threads to the gratings, and other acts of this sort while visiting the grave of the Prophet (may peace and blessings of Allah be on him) in order to receive barakah (blessings) are an innovation. Blessings come from following what Allah and his Messenger (peace be on him) have prescribed, and not from following innovations.
  2. Going to the caves of Mount Uhud or to the caves of Hira or Thaur near Makkah and hanging pieces of cloth or making supplications there have not been prescribed by Allah. All these are unnecessary hardships, innovations in the religion, and are without any basis in the Shari’ah.
  3. Likewise, visiting certain sites under the impression that these constitute “relics” of the Prophet (peace be on him), as for example the place where his camel sat, the Well of Uthman or the Well of the Ring, and gathering soil from these places to obtain blessings are all innovations.
  4. Calling upon the dead while visiting the graves at the Baqi’e Cemetery or the graves of the martyrs of Uhud, and throwing coins in order to seek the blessings of the place or of the people buried there, is a grievous error. Indeed, it is Shirk (ascribing partners to Allah the Most High), as has been pointed out by scholars. It is clear from the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger (Peace be on him) that all forms of worship are for Allah alone. It is not permissible to call upon, or to offer sacrifice, or any other form of Ibadah (worship) except for Allah alone.

We ask Allah, the Most High, to improve the conditions of the Muslims and to give them understanding of the religion, and to turn all of us away from errors and deviations. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the responding.

What is Required of the Pilgrims

  1. To repent sincerely of all sins, and to spend on the Hajj or Umrah out of his lawful earning.
  2. To guard one’s tongue from lying, backbiting and slandering.
  3. To purify the intention to perform Hajj or Umrah solely to seek the pleasure of Allah the Most High.
  4. To learn what actions are prescribed by the Shari’ah, and in the event of any difficulty or problem to ask those who know.
  5. When the pilgrim arrives at al-miqat (Station of Ihram), he is free to choose one of the three types of Hajj (Ifrad, Tamatt’u or Qiran). Tamatt’u is preferable for a person who has not brought his sacrificial animal with him, while Qiran is preferable for one has his animal with him.
  6. If the person entering Ihram is afraid he may be not able to complete all the rites because of sickness or fear, he should make the condition: “I will return to the normal state in case I am obliged to”.
  7. The Hajj of children is valid, but it does not fulfil their Islamic obligation of Hajj.
  8. During the state of Ihram, one may take bath or wash his head or scratch it if need be. A woman may veil her face with her head covering if she fears that men are looking at her.
  9. Many women wear a headband under the veil to keep it away from the face. This action has no basis.
  10. It is permissible to wash the Ihram garments and  to wear them again, or to change into other Ihram garments. If, during the state of Ihram, one should wear a sewn garment, cover his head, or use scent due to forgetfulness or ignorance, no expiation is required of him.
  11. If one is performing Hajj al-tamatt’u or Umrah, he should stop reciting talbiyyah upon arriving at the K’abah before beginning his tawaf.
  12. Walking with quick, short steps and baring the right shoulder is not permissible during tawaf except during the first three circuits of the tawaf of arrival (tawaf al-qudum). This applies to men only.
  13. If the pilgrim forget how many circuits ha has performed, i.e., whether three or four , he should count them as three (that is the less of the two numbers). The same procedure is to be followed for sa’ye. In case of large crowds, there is no harm in performing the circuits beyond the Station of Ibraheem or even further beyond, as the whole of the Sacred Mosque in a place of tawaf.
  14. It is prohibited for a woman to make tawaf showing her adornments, using perfume, or not covering properly what the Shari’ah requires her to be covered.
  15. If a women’s menses begins or she gives birth after entering into Ihram, it is not permissible for her to make tawaf until the flow of blood ceases and she is cleansed.
  16. A woman may wear any dress for Ihram as long as it does not resemble men’s clothing, show her adornments, or cause temptation to men.
  17. To verbalize the intentions for acts of worship other than the Hajj or Umrah is an innovation, and to say it aloud is even more incorrect.
  18. If a Muslim has the intention of making Hajj or Umrah, it is forbidden for him to pass by appointed Station of Ihram (al-miqat) without entering into Ihram.
  19. If the pilgrim for Hajj or Umrah is arriving by air, he enters into Ihram on the plane when he passes parallel to the Station of Ihram on his route. He is to prepare himself for entering into Ihram during the flight before boarding the plane.
  20. If one resides in Makkah, or between Makkah and the Station of Ihram, he does not need to go anywhere to take Ihram. In this case, he is to take his Ihram for either Hajj or Umrah at his place of residence.
  21. In order to increase the number of their Umrahs, some people go to al-Tan’im  or al-J’iranah after the Hajj and subsequently return for Umrah. No support for this practice exists in the Shari’ah.
  22. The pilgrims who are performing Hajj al-Tamatt’u re-enter Ihram on the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah at the place in which he is staying in Makkah. It is not necessary for him to take Ihram from any specified place within Makkah (such as al-Mizab), as many people do, nor is there any farewell tawaf for going out of Makkah at this time.
  23. It is preferable to go to Arafat from Mina on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah after the sun has risen.
  24. It is not permissible to depart from Arafat on the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah before the sun has set. When the pilgrim departs after sunset, he should do so with ease and dignity.
  25. The Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers are to be performed after arriving at Muzdalifah, whether at the time of Maghrib or during the period of  ‘Isha.
  26. It is permissible to gather the pebbles for stoning the Pillars from any place within the boundaries of Makkah (al-Haram), not necessarily from Muzdalifah.
  27. It is not recommended to wash the pebbles. No report exists to the effect that the Prophet (peace be on him) or his Companion ever did this.
  28. It is permissible for women, children and weak individuals to proceed to Mina at the end of the night.
  29. When the pilgrim arrives in Mina on the Day of ‘Eid (the 10th Dhul-Hijjah), he should stop reciting talbiyyah. The pebbles are to be thrown successfully, one by one, at the Stone Pillar of ‘Aqabah.
  30. It is not required that the pebbles remain where they are thrown, it is only necessary that they be thrown at the Pillar.
  31. According to the opinion of scholars, the period of sacrifice extends to the sunset of the third day.
  32. Tawaf al-ifadah or al-ziarah on the day of ‘Eid (the 10th of Dhul-Hijjah) is an essential part of the Hajj, and Hajj is not complete without it. However, it is permissible  to delay it until the end of the stay in Mina.
  33. The person performing Hajj al-Qiran offers one sa’ye only. The same is true in case of Hajj al-Ifrad, if the person keeps his Ihram until the day of sacrifice.
  34. On the Day of Sacrifice, it is preferable that the pilgrim do things in the following order: begins by throwing pebbles at the Pillar of ‘Aqabah; then offers his sacrifice; then shaves or clips his hair, he then makes tawaf of the K’abah followed by sa’ye. Changing this order is, however permissible.   
  35. Returning to full normal state is attained after one has done the following: (a) thrown the pebbles at Pillar of ‘Aqabah; (b) shaved his head or clipped some of his hair; (C) done tawaf al-ifadah  with sa’ye.
  36. If the pilgrim decides to shorten his stay in Mina, it is necessary that he departs from Mina before the sunset.
  37. For a child who cannot do the throwing of pebbles, his guardian throws on his behalf after throwing his own pebbles.
  38. A person who is not capable of going to the throwing due to old age, illness or pregnancy is permitted to appoint someone else (his proxy) to do the throwing on his or her behalf.
  39. The proxy first throw his own pebbles and thereafter, without leaving the place, throws the pebbles on behalf of the person whom he represents at each of the three Pillars.
  40. Except for the residents of the Sacred Mosque, It is obligatory on anyone who is doing Hajj al-Tamatt’u or Hajj al-Qiran to sacrifice a sheep or to share in the seventh part of a camel  or a cow.
  41. If the pilgrim is unable to make this sacrifice, he must fast three days during the Hajj and seven days after returning home.
  42. It is preferable that these three days of fasting be completed before the day of Arafat so that he is not fasting on that day, or otherwise that he fast on the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah.
  43. It is permissible to fast these three days either consecutively or separately, and the same applies to the seven days of fasting at home.
  44. The farewell tawaf (tawaf al-wida) is obligatory for every pilgrim excepting menstruation women .
  45. To visit the Prophet Mosque in Madinah is a Sunnah, whether it is done before Hajj or after it. When you enter the Prophet’s Mosque, it is Sunnah to pray two rak’as of tahiyyat al-masjid (the salah of greeting the mosque). Although you can perform this salah anywhere in the Mosque, it is preferable to perform it in the Rawdah.
  46. Visiting the graves of the Prophet (peace be on him) and others is allowed for males only, and not for females, so that they would not have to travel for such a visit. Rubbing and wiping one’s hands against the walls of the chamber containing the prophet’s tomb, kissing it or doing circuits around it are all innovations which are prohibited. Such things were not done by our upright ancestors. In particular, making tawaf around the chamber is shirk (ascribing partners to Allah).
  47. It is also shirk to call upon the Prophet (peace be on him) for the fulfilment  of a need or to remove a grief.
  48. The Prophet’s Life in his grave in the state of barzakh  (the state of existence between death and resurrection on the Day of Judgment) and is in no way similar to his life on earth before his death. The nature and reality of the life of barzakh is known only to Allah the Most High.
  49. People who stand in front of the Prophet’s grave, raising their hands and making supplications, are doing something alien to Islam. This is an innovation in the religion. Visiting the grave of the Prophet (peace be on him) is neither obligatory nor a condition for the completion of the Hajj, as some people believe.

Supplications which may be recited at Arafat, at the Sacred Sites, and at other Places of Supplication

O Allah! I ask of You integrity and soundness in my religion, my life, my family, and my possessions.

O Allah! Cover my shame, pacify my fears, guard me from what is in front of me and behind me, from what is on my right and on my left, over my head and under my feet.

O Allah! Grant health to my body. O Allah! Grant health to my hearing, O Allah! grant health to my sight. There is no deity except You. O Allah! I seek refuge in You from unbelief and poverty, and from the punishment of the grave. There is no deity except You.

O Allah! You are my Lord. There is no deity except You. You are my Creator and I am your creature. I try to keep my covenant with You and to live in the hope of Your promise as well as I can. I seek refuge in You from my own evil deeds. I acknowledge your favors to me, and I acknowledge my sins. Forgive me my sins, for there is no one who can forgive sins except You.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from worry and sorrow. I seek refuge in you from impotence and sloth, from stinginess and cowardice, I seek refuge in You from the burden of debt and from being humbled by men. O Allah! Make the beginning of this day good, the middle prosperous, and the end successful. I ask You to grant me the good of this world and of the Hereafter. O Most Merciful of all Who show us mercy!

O Allah! I ask of You to make me pleased with what you decreed for me return to good life after death, and I earnestly seek the pleasure of looking at Your Glorious Countenance and the craving to meet You, without distress or affection or misguiding trial. I seek refuge in You from oppressing others or being oppressed, from doing wrong or suffering wrong, and from committing an error or a sin which You will not forgive. O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the feebleness of old age.

O Allah! Guide me to the best of deeds and the best of morals, as none can guide to the best except You, and save me from bad deeds, as none can save me from what is bad except You. O Allah! Strengthen my faith, expand my living space, and bless me in my livelihood.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from negligence, degradation and destitution, I seek refuge in You from unbelief, wickedness, vanity and show, and I seek refuge in You from blindness, deafness and leprosy and bad diseases.

O Allah! Give me soul piety and my conscience purity. You are the Master of my soul and the Guardian of my conscience.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from a knowledge which does not benefit, from a heart which does not tremble, from an ego which not sated, and from a supplication which is not accepted.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I did and from the evil of what I did not do, from the evil of what I know and form the evil of what I did not know.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from a decline in Your favor, from a change in Your protection, form Your sudden punishment and all Your displeasure.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from ruin and falling, from drowning and burning, and from senility: I seek refuge in You from Satan’s beguiling me at my death, and I seek refuge in You from being bitten by venomous creatures. I seek refuge in You from greed, bad manners, bad actions, bad desires and bad diseases. I seek refuge in You from the burden of debt, from being humbled by people, and from the ridicule of enemies.

O Allah! Strength my religion which is my fortress, make this world a better place of sojourn for me, and grant me a good life in the Hereafter which will be my abode. Make my life increase in all goodness and my death a rest from all evil.

O Allah! Support me and help me, and do not let others overpower me, guide me and make the following of Your Commands easy for me.

O Allah! Make me grateful to You, mindful of You, full of fear toward You, devoted to obedience of You, humble before You, earnest in supplication, and penitent. My Lord, accept my repentance, wash away my sins, answer my supplication, establish my veracity, guide my heart, make my tongue truthful, and remove all ill-feeling from my heart.

O Allah! I ask You for a resolute mind and firmness in following the guidance. I ask You to make me thankful for Your favor, to be of good service to You, and to grant me a sound heart and a truthful tongue. I ask You to grant me what you know to be good and to give me refuge from what is evil, and to forgive me.O Allah! Inspire me with good conduct and save me from the evil of my selfishness.

O Allah! I ask You to guide me to the doing of good deeds and abstaining from bad deeds and love those who are humble, and to forgive me and show mercy to me. And if You wish a trial for Your servants, take me to You before falling into it.

O Allah! I ask You for Your love and the love of those who love You, and for the love of every action which will bring me closer to Your love. O Allah! I ask You the best of the request for the best in my supplication, for the best success and the best reward. Strengthen me, make heavier my balance of good, confirm my faith, elevate my rank, accept my worship, and forgive my mistakes, and I ask of You the highest ranks in the Garden of Paradise. I ask You for good beginnings, good endings, the totality of goodness, from the first to the last, from within and from without, and I ask of You the highest ranks in the Garden.

O Allah! I ask You to exalt my fame, lighten my burden, purify my heart, keep me chaste, forgive me my sins. And I ask of You a high rank in the Garden. O Allah! I seek refuge in You against difficulties, calamities, troubles, oppression and the ridicule of enemies.

O Allah! O Controller of the hearts, keep my heart firm in your religion, keep it contented with Your worship. O Allah! Grant us increase and not decrease, honor and not dishonor, give us Your favors and do not deprive us, prefer us, let not others be preferred to us.

O Allah! Grant us the best of outcomes in all our affairs, and save us from disgrace in this world and from punishment in the Hereafter.

O Allah! Grant us such fear of Your as will come between us and acts of disobedience to You; such obedience to You as will bring us to Your Garden: and such certainty that the calamities of this world will made easy for us by You. Let us enjoy our hearing, our sight, and our faculties as long as You grant us life, and let it be, the last to be taken away from us. Avenge us from those who have wronged us and help us against our enemies. Let no calamity be fall our religion, let no worldly affairs be our greatest care or all about which we know, and let not those who have no fear of You and who do not show mercy towards us rule over us.

O Allah! I ask You to bestow Your mercy on me, to forgive me, to protect me from every sin, to give me a share of every good, and to grant me the attainment of the Garden and salvation from the fire.

O Allah! leave not for us a sin which You have not forgiven, nor a short- coming which You have not concealed, nor a wary which You have not removed, nor a debt which You have not paid, nor a need from among the needs of this world or the Hereafter, the fulfillment of which is beneficial for us and pleasing to You, which You have not fulfilled, O Most Merciful of all show us mercy!

O Allah! I ask for a mercy from You by which You will guide my heart, settle my affairs, remove my worries, protect me from what is unseen to me, make my face radiant, purify my deeds, inspire me with wisdom, avert calamities from me, and protect me from every evil.

O Allah! I ask You for success on the day of judgment, and a life of happiness, and the rank of the martyrs, the companionship of the prophets, and victory over enemies.

O Allah! I ask You for correctness of belief; for a faith which leads to good conduct; for a success which results in eternal felicity, for mercy, health and forgiveness from You, and for Your pleasure.

O Allah! I ask You for health, for integrity, for good character, and that I may be pleased with my portion.

O Allah! I seek refuge in You from the evil of myself. And from the evil of every creature which You are grasping by its forelock. O my Lord, keep me on the straight path.

O Allah! You hear my words, You behold my situation, You know what is open and what is hidden within me, nothing is hidden from You. It is me alone who is in need, a humble seeker of Your forgiveness, I beseech You with humility in my heart, with trembling and fear, in prostration and utter helplessness.

O Allah! Grant me soundness of belief, goodness of character, forgiveness of my sins, and Your eternal pleasure in the Hereafter.

May Allah’s blessings be upon Mohammed and his family and Companions.